Basic Biomechanic Running Terms

Pronation: The rolling inward of the foot during walking or running due to a lack of support by the individual’s foot structure.
Neutral: An efficient foot that neither rolls inward or outward while walking or running. It remains efficient for the individual
Suponation: The rolling outward of the foot from a more rigid and less flexible structure of the foot.

Each of these terms refer to a foot type and its general movement while walking or running. Each type of foot will have a varying degree of inward or outward movement which can put added stress on a persons foot, ankle, knees and hips.

Gait The basic movement of the body forward or locomotion via the upper and lower body movements

Gait Cycle The sequences of the lower body that occur for walking or running that include one completion of the foot at initial impact then a mid-stance or the foot flat on the ground, toe off and then the swing phase where the foot is not on the ground prior to initial impact

Instep Arch area of the foot

Mid-Foot Middle section of the foot between the heel and the ball

Forefoot Front of the foot from the ball to the toes

Rear-Foot Heel area of the foot

Additional Footwear/Shoe Terms

Medial Side The arch side of the shoe

Lateral Side The small toe side or outside of the shoe

Medial Post A firmer piece of material added to the midsole of the shoe for additional support

Crash Pad/ Landing Zone An area at the rear of the heel to the outside of the shoe that is a typical area where a runner will contact the ground

Common Running Abbreviations 

PR: personal record, your fastest time at any given distance

PB: personal best

CR: course record, fastest time run on that course

NR: national record, fastest time in the country run at any given distance

WR: world record, fastest time in the world run at any given distance

DFL: dead freaking last, an unofficial race place and point of pride among back-runners

ITB: iliotibial band, the fascia band starting at your hip to the knee

FKT: fastest known time

MUT: mountain/ultra/trail, a type nutty endurance trail runner

DOMS: delayed onset muscle soreness, an epidemic among long-distance runners

DNF: did not finish

LSD: long, slow distance

BQ: Boston qualifier, marathon that is a qualifying race for the Boston Marathon based on your time

Run Distances

100 meters: shortest common sprint race. Typically held outdoors

200 meters: 1/2 lap around a standard track

400 meters: 1/4 mile, one lap around a standard track

800 meters: 1/2 mile, two laps around a standard track

1200 meter: 3/4 mile, three laps around a standard track

1500 meter: .93 mile, metric mile, 3 3/4 laps around track

5k: 3.1 miles; 5,000 meters

10k: 6.2 miles; 10,000 meters

15k: 9.3 miles; 15,000 meters

Half Marathon: 13.1 miles; 21.1k

Marathon: 26.2 miles; 42.2k

Ultra marathon: any distance greater than 26.2 miles but typically referring to a 50k race 50 mile run, or 100 mile run.

50k: 31.1 miles

Tri/triathlon: a race which involves swimming, cycling and running

Sprint (750m swim, 20km bike, 5k run)

Olympic or standard (1.5k/40km/10k)

½ Ironman (1.2 miles/56 miles/13.1 miles)

Ironman (2.4 miles/112 miles/26.2miles)